A tell site in southeast Turkey excavated by the Germans in the late 19th century. It was important during the 2nd millennium bc under the Hittites and subsequently as an independent city state called Sam’al. It was annexed by the Assyrians in the 7th century BC and then abandoned. The town was surrounded by a wall forming an exact circle c700 metres in diameter. Inside there was a fortified citadel with two palaces inside. The palaces and gateways were decorated with relief carvings and inscriptions in the Syro-Hittite hieroglyphic script.