Site in the Air massif, on the edge of the Tenere Desert in Niger, where excavations have revealed a long succession of prehistoric occupation. Levalloiso-Mous-terian settlement was followed by an arid phase when the region was probably uninhabited. The succeeding Aterian industry represents a local variant in which bifacial points are a distinct feature. The prolonged post-Aterian arid period is marked by a further hiatus in the archaeological sequence, but by about 10,000 bc there was a rapid return to wetter conditions. Human settlement then resumed: it appears likely that the initial re-occupation of the area was by small mobile groups, perhaps of northerly origin. With increasingly moist conditions, however, the more settled life-style of the so-called ‘aquatic civilization’ was soon adopted. By early in the 4th millennium bc techniques of food-production are firmly attested. Adrar Bous is one of the most informative sites of the Tenere Neolithic. The skeleton of a domestic shorthorn ox there dates to 3700 bc. Small stock were also herded, while numerous grindstones suggest that cereals, including sorghum, were intensively exploited if not actually cultivated.