added by archaeologs Widespread post-ARCHAic tradition probably originating in the forest environment of the northeast, but ultimately spreading over the whole of the eastern USA as far west as the Great Plains. Its major traits are cord- or fabric-impressed pottery and burial mound construction. Though hunting and gathering are practised throughout, agricultural activity appears to have become increasingly important. To what extent this practice is a characteristic trait is still a matter of argument. Considerable variation between local chronologies precludes a tradition-wide dating scheme, although 1000 bc-1700 ad embraces most. The best-known Woodland cultures are Adena and Hopewell which are usually ascribed to Early and Middle Woodland respectively (also known as Burial Mound Periods I and II). The Late Woodland period is characterized by the encroachment of and (especially in the southeast) replacement by the Mississippi tradition. See Table 9, page 552.
The Macmillan dictionary of archaeology, Ruth D. Whitehouse, 1983