A form of primitive exchange in which goods are transferred between individuals or groups of the same status without any central control, usually in a balanced and mutually beneficial manner. A mode of exchange in which transactions take place between individuals who are symmetrically placed i.e. they are exchanging as equals, neither being in a dominant position. The exchange was often an expression of the social obligations between the parties. Within a family, generalized reciprocity occurs, where there is giving with no expectation of immediate return. Between families in a community, balanced reciprocity may occur, with both parties expecting give-and-take of goods to be of approximately equal value. The items exchanged may be utilitarian goods, foodstuffs, or prestige materials. Negative reciprocity is when both sides attempt to receive more than they give.