The first kingdom of the Khmers which came into being in what is now southern Laos in the middle of the 6th century. Its etymology is not known. It gradually expanded towards the south to absorb the territories formerly occupied by Funan (i.e. present Cambodia). At the beginning of the 8th century it split into Upper (or Land) and Lower (or Water) Chenla, the latter part coming under Javanese suzerainty towards the end of the same century. Chenla ceased to exist with the establishment, in 802, of the kingdom of Angkor which succeeded it. As no site of this period has so far been excavated, the material culture of Chenla is little known, but from local inscriptions, architectural remains and Chinese sources it is clear, that it was a so-called Indianized kingdom. In art history the time is known as the ‘pre-Angkor’ period. See also ISanapura.