added by archaeologs An ancient kingdom formed in 192 AD, during the breakup of the Han dynasty of China, corresponding roughly to present central Vietnam. Although the territory was at first inhabited mainly by wild tribes which struggled with the Chinese colonies in Tonkin, it gradually came under Indian cultural influence. Champa artifacts include well-developed sculpture and reliefs from the 7th century and impressive architecture from the 9th century. The kingdom was slowly absorbed into Vietnam and by the end of the 17th century had ceased to exist.
added by archaeologs A now-vanished Indianized kingdom on the eastern coast of the Indochinese Peninsula, corresponding roughly to present central Vietnam. There, to the south of their own province of Chiao-Chih, the Chinese mentioned the foundation of the kingdom of Lin-Yi in 192 ad, later called Champa (unknown etymology) in Sanskrit sources. Well-developed sculpture and reliefs occur from the 7th century and impressive architecture in the form of brick towers from the 9th century; both art forms eventually vanish in the 13 th century. After unsuccessful attempts to expand towards the north, into Chinese-held territory, Champa itself lost ground from the time Vietnam gained independence from China in 939. Lacking a solid economic basis, the Chams could not prevent their country from being absorbed little by little by the southward-expanding Vietnamese. In 1471 the then capital Vuaya was taken, and by the end of the 18th century Champa had ceased to exist, even as a nominal vassal of Vietnam. See Amaravati, Khauthara, Panduranga and Vuaya.
The Macmillan dictionary of archaeology, Ruth D. Whitehouse, 1983