added by archaeologs
Situated in the ancient Judaean region of ISRAEL, Jerusalem dates back to the Early Bronze Age (c.3000 BC), when it was probably founded by an AMORITE tribe, the Jebusites, who called it the ‘Foundation of Salem’ (Salem being an Amorite deity). It was captured by the ISRAELITES under David in c.1000 BC, and the ‘City of David’ became the capital of the Israelite kingdom, and subsequently the capital of the Kingdom of Judah. In AD 70 the city was destroyed by the Roman emperor Titus as a result of a Jewish revolt, but a new city (Aelia Capitolina) was founded by Hadrian in 135. In 638 an Arab army led by Caliph Omar Ibn al-Khattab conquered the city, but it was captured by Crusaders in 1099, eventually falling to Saladin in 1187 and becoming part of the Ottoman empire in 1516.
The site of the ancient city was first excavated by Lieutenant Charles Warren in the late 1860s, although his work was dogged by political and logistical problems. Warren’s unorthodox methods involved the digging of deep shafts with long passages leading away from the foot of each, but he nevertheless produced a fairly comprehensive overview of the site. Since then, it has been excavated by a steady stream of different excavators, including Frederick Bliss and Kathleen Kenyon. The principal surviving features are a rock-cut water tunnel dating to the 8th century BC, remains of the Herodian palace and temple (c.AD 40–44), the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (built by Constantine in AD 335), the Mamluk–Ottoman city-walls and the late 7th-century Dome of the Rock (built over the site of King Solomon’s temple).
M. Avi-Yonah et al.: Jerusalem (Jerusalem, 1973); K.M. Kenyon: Digging up Jerusalem (London, 1974); J. Perrot, ed.: ‘Jerusalem: 5000 years of history’, DA (special issue, March 1992); G.J. Wightman: The walls of Jerusalem from the Canaanites to the Mamluks (Sydney, 1993).