An important Predynastic and Archaic settlement and necropolis in southern Upper Egypt (Luxor). The town's population was in excess of 5000 and it was particularly associated with the god Horus. In proto-dynastic times Hierakonpolis was the capital of southern Egypt. Discoveries of this period are stone palettes, votive objects, and mace-heads, with carving illustrating the rise of the kings to the divine status they enjoyed in pharaonic times. A series of successive shrines dates from early Archaic/late Predynastic.